RESEARCH

abstract art spring Nature background

Below are a list of research abstracts on the clinical significance of the ingredients used in the Only1U Skincare Collection. These abstracts from peer reviewed scientific journals illustrate the healing and chemical properties of many of the substances contained in our products.

Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil.

An Acad Bras Cienc. 2015 Aug;87(2 Suppl 0):1397-1408. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Abstract

Several studies have investigated the antinociceptive, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of compounds found in the lavender essential oil (LEO), however to date, there is still lack of substantial data. The objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of lavender essential oil. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical decolorization assay was used for antioxidant activity evaluation. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using two models of acute inflammation: carrageenan-induced pleurisy and croton oil-induced ear edema. The antinociceptive activity was tested using the pain model induced by formalin. LEO has antioxidant activity, which is dose-dependent response. The inflammatory response evoked by carrageenan and by croton oil was reduced through the pre-treatment of animals with LEO. In the pleurisy model, the drug used as positive control, dexamethasone, was more efficacious. However, in the ear swelling, the antiedematogenic effect of the oil was similar to that observed for dexamethasone. In the formalin test, LEO consistently inhibited spontaneous nociception and presented a similar effect to that of tramadol. The results of this study reveal (in vivo) the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of LEO and demonstrates its important therapeutic potential.

*Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26247152

Effects of Blending Oil of Lavender and Thyme on Oxidative Stress, Immunity, and Skin Condition in Atopic Dermatitis Induced Mice

J Korean Acad Nurs. 2015 Jun;45(3):367-77. doi: 10.4040/jkan.2015.45.3.367.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of essential oil on oxidative stress, immunity, and skin condition in atopic dermatitis (AD) induced mice.

METHODS:

This study was a 3×3 factorial design. Factors were oil type (Lavender, Thyme, and 2:1 mixture of lavender and thyme oil [blending oil]) and treatment period (0 day, 7 days, and 21 days). The samples were 45 mice with AD and randomly assigned to nine groups of five mice per group. The dependent variables such as superoxide radical, IgE, degranulated mast cells, and epidermal thickness were measured. Data were collected from February to April in 2014. Descriptive statistics, One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD test were performed using the SPSS WIN 20.0 program.

RESULTS:

Dependent variables were not statistically significantly different by the three oil types (p>.05). Essential oils such as lavender, thyme, and blending oil were all effective in reducing AD symptoms and especially 2:1 blending oil were most effective. There were statistically significant differences by the three treatment periods in all dependent variables (p<.001). There were statistically significant interactions between oil types and treatment periods in all dependent variables (p<.01). For decreasing superoxide radical, degranulated mast cells, and epidermal thickness, 2:1 mixed oil should be applied for at least 21 days. Otherwise to reduce IgE, 2:1 mixed oil should be used for at least 7 days.

CONCLUSION:

These findings provide bases for developing effective interventions for AD patients to manage their AD symptoms.

*Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159138

 

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Nat Prod Res. 2015;29(6):582-5. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2014.954246. Epub 2014 Aug 30.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical infections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO.

*Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174508

Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oil from Spain: determination of aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory bioactivities.

Nat Prod Res. 2015 Jun 24:1-8.

 Abstract

Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oils (EOs), from Abrial, Super and Grosso cultivars, cultivated and extracted in the South East of Spain, were analysed by using GC/MS to determine their composition, in both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (34-47%), linalyl acetate (17-34%), camphor (4-9%) and eucalyptol (3-7%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with the enantioselective gas chromatography, where ( - )-linalool, (+)-camphor and ( - )-linalyl acetate were determined as the main components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods: activity against free radicals, chelating and reducing power, probably due to linalool and linalyl acetate. Mild inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool and camphor. These properties support the potential use of L. × intermedia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredient to fight several skin diseases.

*Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26106980

 

Hass avocado composition and potential health effects

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(7):738-50. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.556759.

Abstract

Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. Although the official avocado serving is one-fifth of a fruit (30 g), according to NHANES analysis the average consumption is one-half an avocado (68 g), which provides a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of the following: dietary fiber (4.6 g), total sugar (0.2 g), potassium (345 mg), sodium (5.5 mg), magnesium (19.5 mg), vitamin A (43 μg), vitamin C (6.0 mg), vitamin E (1.3 mg), vitamin K1 (14 μg), folate (60 mg), vitamin B-6 (0.2 mg), niacin (1.3 mg), pantothenic acid (1.0 mg), riboflavin (0.1 mg), choline (10 mg), lutein/zeaxanthin (185 μg), phytosterols (57 mg), and high-monounsaturated fatty acids (6.7 g) and 114 kcals or 1.7 kcal/g. The avocado oil consists of 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 16% saturated fatty acids (SFA), which helps to promote healthy blood lipid profiles and enhance the bioavailability of fat soluble vitamins and phytochemicals from the avocado or other fruits and vegetables, naturally low in fat, which are consumed with avocados. There are eight preliminary clinical studies showing that avocado consumption helps support cardiovascular health. Exploratory studies suggest that avocados may support weight management and healthy aging.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Hass+avocado+composition+and+potential+health+effects

 

Effect of semisolid formulation of persea americana mill (avocado) oil on wound healing in rats

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:472382. doi: 10.1155/2013/472382. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a semisolid formulation of avocado oil, SSFAO 50%, or avocado oil in natura, on incisional and excisional cutaneous wound models in Wistar rats. An additional objective was to quantify the fatty acids present in avocado oil. On the 14th day, a significant increase was observed in percentage wound contraction and reepithelialization in the groups treated with 50% SSFAO or avocado oil compared to the petroleum jelly control. Anti-inflammatory activity, increase in density of collagen, and tensile strength were observed inSSFAO 50% or avocado oil groups, when compared to control groups. The analysis of the components of avocado oil by gas chromatography detected the majority presence of oleic fatty acid (47.20%), followed by palmitic (23.66%), linoleic (13.46%) docosadienoic (8.88%), palmitoleic (3.58%), linolenic (1.60%), eicosenoic (1.29%), and myristic acids (0.33%). Our results show that avocado oil is a rich source of oleic acid and contains essential fatty acids. When used in natura or in pharmaceutical formulations for topical use, avocado oil can promote increased collagen synthesis and decreased numbers of inflammatory cells during the wound-healing process and may thus be considered a new option for treating skin wounds.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Effect+of+semisolid+formulation+of+persea+americana+mill+(avocado)+oil+on+wound+healing+in+rats

 

Wound healing activity of Persea americana (avocado) fruit: a preclinical study on rats

J Wound Care. 2008 Mar;17(3):123-6.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Avocado (Persea americana) oil is rich in nutrient waxes, proteins and minerals, as well as vitamins A, D and E. It is an excellent source of enrichment for dry, damaged or chapped skin. This study aimed to evaluate the wound-healing activity of fruit extract of Persea americana in rats.

METHOD:

The effect of topical and oral administration of Persea americana fruit extract (300 mg/kg/day) on excision and dead space wound models was evaluated. The rats used in the excision wound model were divided into four groups of five each and received either topical or oral treatment. The rats used in the dead space wound model were divided into two groups of five each and were treated orally. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialisation, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content.

RESULTS:

In the excision wound model, complete healing (full epithelialisation) was observed on average on day 14 in the rats who receive oral or topical treatment. In contrast, the controls took approximately 17 days to heal completely. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialise faster than the controls (p < 0.001). Wet and dry granulation tissue weight and the hydroxyproline content of the tissue obtained from extract-treated animals used in the dead space wound model were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the controls.

CONCLUSION:

Rate of wound contraction, epithelialisation time together with the hydroxyproline content and histological observations support the use of Persea americana in the management of wound healing.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Wound+healing+activity+of+Persea+americana+(avocado)+fruit%3A+a+preclinical+study+on+rats

Jojoba in dermatology: a succinct review

G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Dec;148(6):687-91.

Abstract

Phytomedicine has been successfully used in dermatology horizon for thousands of years. Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a long-lived, drought resistant, perennial plant with interesting economic value as it is processed for liquid wax production. The jojoba plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. The liquid wax is an important substrate for a variety of industrial applications and is used in skin treatment preparations. The oil from the jojoba plant is the main biological source of wax esters and has a multitude of potential applications. The review of literatures suggest that jojoba has anti-inflammatory effect and it can be used on a variety of skin conditions including skin infections, skin aging, as well as wound healing. Moreover, jojoba has been shown to play a role in cosmetics formulas such as sunscreens and moisturizers and also enhances the absorption of topical drugs. The intention of the review is to summarize the data regarding the uses of jojoba in dermatology for readers and researchers.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Jojoba+in+dermatology%3A+a+succinct+review

Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs

Libyan J Med. 2013 Oct 7;8:22520. doi: 10.3402/ljm.v8i0.22520.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries.

AIMS:

The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO).

METHODS:

The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses.

RESULTS:

RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin.

CONCLUSION:

Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Rose+geranium+essential+oil+as+a+source+of+new+and+safe+anti-inflammatory+drugs

Effect of "rose essential oil" inhalation on stress-induced skin-barrier disruption in rats and humans

Chem Senses. 2012 May;37(4):347-56. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjr108. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

Abstract

In stressed animals, several brain regions (e.g., hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus [PVN]) exhibit neuronal activation, which increases plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and glucocorticoids. We previously reported that so-called "green odor" inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA axis) and thereby prevents the chronic stress-induced disruption of the skin barrier. Here, we investigated whether rose essential oil, another sedative odorant, inhibits the stress-induced 1) increases in PVN neuronal activity in rats and plasma glucocorticoids (corticosterone [CORT] in rats and cortisol in humans) and 2) skin-barrier disruption in rats and humans. The results showed that in rats subjected to acute restraint stress, rose essential oil inhalation significantly inhibited the increase in plasma CORT and reduced the increases in the number of c-Fos-positive cells in PVN. Inhalation of rose essential oil significantly inhibited the following effects of chronic stress: 1) the elevation of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), an index of the disruption of skin-barrier function, in both rats and humans and 2) the increase in the salivary concentration of cortisol in humans. These results suggest that in rats and humans, chronic stress-induced disruption of the skin barrier can be limited or prevented by rose essential oil inhalation, possibly through its inhibitory effect on the HPA axis.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Effect+of+%22rose+essential+oil%22+inhalation+on+stress-induced+skin-barrier+disruption+in+rats+and+humans

 

The antibacterial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from difficult-to-heal wounds.

Burns. 2014 Aug;40(5):1046-51. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2013.11.002. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Abstract

Hard-to-heal wounds represent a significant problem to patients, health care professionals, and health care system. They can be formed as a result of mechanical injuries and burns, and any co-existing chronic disease increases the risk of their emergence. Diabetics are at a greater risk of developing chronic wounds because of poor circulation, slow healing times, vascular disease and neuropathy. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacterial clinical strains. Clinical strains were isolated from patients with difficult-to-treat wounds and a comprehensive evaluation of their sensitivity to antibiotics was carried out. The constituents of geranium oil were specified by GC-FID-MS analysis. The micro-dilution broth method was used to check the inhibition of microbial growth at various concentrations of geranium oil. The tested geranium oil was efficacious against Gram-negative pathogens responsible for problems with wound treatment. The results suggest that geranium oil may be considered an effective component of therapy in the case of frequent recurrences of infections caused by resistant pathogens

*Reference:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=The+antibacterial+activity+of+geranium+oil+against+Gram-negative+bacteria+isolated+from+difficult-to-heal+wounds.

Antifungal activity of the carrot seed oil and its major sesquiterpene compounds

Z Naturforsch C. 2004 Nov-Dec;59(11-12):791-6.

Abstract

Carrot seed oil is the source of the carotane sesquiterpenes carotol, daucol and beta-caryophyllene. These sesquiterpenic allelochemicals were evaluated against Alternaria alternata isolated from the surface of carrot seeds cultivar Perfekcja, a variety widely distributed in horticultural practise in Poland. Alternaria alternata is one of the most popular phytotoxic fungi infesting the carrot plant. The strongest antifungal activity was observed for the main constituent of carrot seed oil, carotol, which inhibited the radial growth of fungi by 65% at the following concentration

References:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Antifungal+activity+of+the+carrot+seed+oil+and+its+major+sesquiterpene+compounds.